purehealth research

Toenail Treatment Oil



Antimicrobial Activity of Basil, Oregano, and Thyme Essential Oils 1


For centuries, plants have been used for a wide variety of purposes, from treating infectious diseases to food preservation and perfume production. Presently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to currently used antimicrobials in combination with the appearance of emerging diseases requires the urgent development of new, more effective drugs. Plants, due to the large biological and structural diversity of their components, constitute a unique and renewable source for the discovery of new antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. In the present paper, the history, composition, and antimicrobial activities of the basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils are reviewed.

Source: Hercules Sakkas and Chrissanthy Papadopoulou. “Antimicrobial Activity of Basil, Oregano, and Thyme Essential Oils” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. (2017): 27(3), 429–438.

Natural Therapy of Fungal Nail Disease: Review 2


Nails are the unique part of body, besides it’s a dead tissue they also have role in serving the human beauty. It protects the fingertip and tissues from injuries and also enhances the precise movements of distal digits, but it has also been cursed with many diseases and ailments including serious infections. Most common types are of Fungal or Yeast infections resulting in Onychomycosis and if it is left untreated, the nail plate may separate from the nail bed. Other infections include Paronychia, Tinea Unguis, and Pseudomonas bacterial infection.

Different nail disorders are Onychatrophia resulting from injury, Leuconychia cause by trapping of tiny bubbles of air, Melanonychia known as nail moles and can be sometimes serious. For a physician physical appearance of nail is important which can reveal many disorders like Malnutrition, Liver disease, etc. Nail infections can be treated with natural products which are mainly Oregano oil, Lemongrass oil, Horopito. One of the latest and modern treatment to treat fungal infections of nails is Ozone treatment but it is not frequently used and quite costly. Like others body parts nails also required a good source of nutrients to maintain their complexions and healthiness, Vitamin A, Vitamin D and calcium help in maintaining moisture content of nails and avoid brittleness, Besides, this Proteins and fatty acids like Linoleic acids are also essential.

Source: Dr. Bharat Parashar, Virendra Yadav, Brajesh Maurya, and Love Sharma. “Natural Therapy of Fungal Nail Disease: Review.” The Pharma Journal. (2012): Vol. 1 No. 4.


An Open Study to Evaluate Effectiveness and Tolerability of a Nail Oil Composed of Vitamin E and Essential Oils in Mild to Moderate Distal Subungual Onychomycosis 3


Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease and can affect both fingernails and toenails. When possible, topical treatment is generally preferred both by patients and physicians because it is associated with lower risk of systemic side effects and drug interactions than oral antifungals, avoiding laboratory monitoring.


The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and patient's compliance of a new topical antifungal containing vitamin E and essential oils of lime, oregano, and tea tree.

Patients and Methods

We enrolled 20 patients with mild-moderate distal subungual onychomycosis due to dermatophytes or non-dermatophyte molds. The product was applied once daily on the periungual tissues and on the nail plate for 6 months. Follow-up without therapy continued for another 6 months in order to evaluate the product's effect maintenance. Periodic evaluation of treatment efficacy was performed by standardized photography and mycological examination (KOH + culture) of the target nail at baseline (T0), after 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) of therapy, and after 6 months of follow-up (T3).


At the end of the 12-month study, the majority of patients achieved a complete cure of onychomycosis (78.5%). All patients were very satisfied by the treatment. No side effects were recorded.


The results of our study indicate that this new topical antifungal containing vitamin E and essential oils of lime, oregano, and tea tree is an effective and safe option for topical therapy of onychomycosis. This topical antifungal nail oil restructures the nail appearance, improving patient's adherence to therapy and reducing the risk of relapses, maintaining results over time.

Source: Aurora Alessandrini, Michela Starace, Francesca Bruni, and Bianca Maria Piraccini. “An Open Study to Evaluate Effectiveness and Tolerability of a Nail Oil Composed of Vitamin E and Essential Oils in Mild to Moderate Distal Subungual Onychomycosis” Skin Appendage Disorders. (2020): 6(1): 14–18.


Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices 4


Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices-such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin-possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.

Source: Qing Liu, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Cai-Ning Zhao, Guo-Yi Tang, Hua-Bin Li. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. (2017): 16;18(6):1283.


Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi 5


Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

Source: Hee Youn Chee and Min Hee Lee. “Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi”Mycobiology. (2007): 35(4): 241–243.


A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study 6


Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis) is a form of ringworm associated with highly contagious yeast-fungi colonies, although they look like bacteria. Foot bacteria overgrowth produces a harmless pungent odor, however, uncontrolled proliferation of yeast-fungi produces small vesicles, fissures, scaling, and maceration with eroded areas between the toes and the plantar surface of the foot, resulting in intense itching, blisters, and cracking. Painful microbial foot infection may prevent athletic participation. Keeping the feet clean and dry with the toenails trimmed reduces the incidence of skin disease of the feet. Wearing sandals in locker and shower rooms prevents intimate contact with the infecting organisms and alleviates most foot-sensitive infections. Enclosing feet in socks and shoes generates a moisture-rich environment that stimulates overgrowth of pungent both aerobic bacteria and infectious yeast-fungi. Suppression of microbial growth may be accomplished by exposing the feet to air to enhance evaporation to reduce moistures' growth-stimulating effect and is often neglected. There is an association between yeast-fungi overgrowths and disabling foot infections. Potent agents virtually exterminate some microbial growth, but the inevitable presence of infection under the nails predicts future infection. Topical antibiotics present a potent approach with the ideal agent being one that removes moisture producing antibacterial-antifungal activity. Severe infection may require costly prescription drugs, salves, and repeated treatment.


A 63-y female volunteered to enclose feet in shoes and socks for 48 hours. Aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi counts were determined by swab sample incubation technique (1) after 48-hours feet enclosure, (2) after washing feet, and (3) after 8-hours socks-shoes exposure to a aromatic oil powder-compound consisting of arrowroot, baking soda, basil oil, tea tree oil, sage oil, and clove oil.


Application of this novel compound to the external surfaces of feet completely inhibited both aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi-mold proliferation for 8-hours in spite of being in an enclosed environment compatible to microbial proliferation. Whether topical application of this compound prevents microbial infections in larger populations is not known. This calls for more research collected from subjects exposed to elements that may increase the risk of microbial-induced foot diseases.

Source: Bill D. Misner. “A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. (2007): 4: 3.


Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils 7


Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

Source: Tzu-Kai Lin, Lily Zhong, and Juan Luis Santiago. “Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences. (2018): 19(1): 70.

The uses and properties of almond oil 8


Almond oil [Oleum amygdalae] has long been used in complementary medicine circles for its numerous health benefits. Although no conclusive scientific data exists currently, almonds and almond oil have many properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting and anti-hepatotoxicity effects. Further, associations between almond oil and improved bowel transit have been made, which consequently reduces irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Further, some studies show a reduced incidence of colonic cancer. Moreover, cardiovascular benefits have also been identified with almond oil elevating the levels of so-called 'good cholesterol', high-density lipoproteins (HDL), whilst it reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Historically, almond oil had been used in Ancient Chinese, Ayurvedic and Greco-Persian schools of Medicine to treat dry skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. Further, it is through anecdotal evidence and clinical experiences that almond oil seemingly reduces hypertrophic scarring post-operatively, smoothes and rejuvenates skin. Almond oil has emollient and sclerosant properties and, therefore, has been used to improve complexion and skin tone. Further studies looking into the use of almond oil post-operatively for the reduction of scarring are suggested.

Source: Zeeshan Ahmad. “The uses and properties of almond oil.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. (2010): 16(1):10-2.

Effect of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement: a randomized clinical trial 9


Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. Participants were randomized 1 : 1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group) or control group (almond oil inhalation group). Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM) on 3 consecutive days. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS), blood pressure, heart rate, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured before and after inhalation. Pain VAS on all three days (P < .001) and systolic (P < .05) and diastolic (P = .03) blood pressure on the second day were significantly lower in the group inhaling eucalyptus than that inhaling almond oil. Heart rate, CRP, and WBC, however, did not differ significantly in the two groups. In conclusion, inhalation of eucalyptus oil was effective in decreasing patient's pain and blood pressure following TKR, suggesting that eucalyptus oil inhalation may be a nursing intervention for the relief of pain after TKR.

Source: Yang Suk Jun, Purum Kang, Sun Seek Min, Jeong-Min Lee, Hyo-Keun Kim, and Geun Hee Seol. “Effect of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement: a randomized clinical trial” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.” (2013): 502727.


Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro 10


The in vitro antifungal activity of tea oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, has been evaluated against 26 strains of various dermatophyte species, 54 yeasts, among them 32 strains of Candida albicans and other Candida sp. as well as 22 different Malassezia furfur strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tea tree oil were measured by agar dilution technique. Tea tree oil was found to be able to inhibit growth of all clinical fungal isolates. For the investigated dermatophytes MIC values from 1,112.5 to 4,450.0 micrograms/ml with a geometric mean of 1,431.5 micrograms/ml were demonstrated. Both C. albicans strains and the other strains belonging to the genus Candida and Trichosporon appeared to be slightly less susceptible to tea tree oil in vitro. However, their MIC values, which varied from 2,225.0 to 4,450.0 micrograms/ml (geometric mean 4,080 micrograms/ml), indicated moderate susceptibility to the essential oil of M. alternifolia. The lipophilic yeast M. furfur seemed to be most susceptible to tea tree oil. MIC values between 556.2 and 4,450.0 micrograms/ml (geometric mean 1,261.5 micrograms/ml) were found against the tested M. furfur strains. However, when calculated as percentage tea tree oil of the agar, the above-mentioned concentrations correspond to 0.5-0.44% tea tree oil content. These values are far below the usual relatively high therapeutic concentrations of the agent; approximately 5-10% solution or even the concentrated essential oil are used for external treatment. In comparison with tea tree oil, in vitro susceptibility against miconazole, an established topical antifungal, was tested. As expected, very low MIC values for miconazole were found for dermatophytes (geometric mean 0.2 microgram/ml), yeasts (geometric mean 1.0 microgram/ml), and M. furfur (geometric mean 2.34 micrograms/ml). It is suggested that the in vivo effect of tea tree oil ointment in the therapy of fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes as well as in the treatment of dandruff, a mild form of seborrheic dermatitis, may be at least partly due to an antifungal activity of tea tree oil.

Source: P. Nenoff, U. F. Haustein, and W. Brandt. “Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro.” Skin Pharmacology. (1996): 9(6):388-94.

Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: A Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties 11


Complementary and alternative medicines such as tea tree (melaleuca) oil have become increasingly popular in recent decades. This essential oil has been used for almost 100 years in Australia but is now available worldwide both as neat oil and as an active component in an array of products. The primary uses of tea tree oil have historically capitalized on the antiseptic and anti-inflammatory actions of the oil. This review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the oil and its components, as well as clinical efficacy. Specific mechanisms of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory action are reviewed, and the toxicity of the oil is briefly discussed.


A paradigm shift in the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary to prevent antibiotics becoming obsolete, and where appropriate, alternatives to antibiotics ought to be considered. There are already several nonantibiotic approaches to the treatment and prevention of infection, including probiotics, phages, and phytomedicines. Alternative therapies are viewed favorably by many patients because they are often not being helped by conventional therapy and they believe there are fewer detrimental side effects. In addition, many report significant improvement while taking complementary and alternative medicines. Unfortunately, the medical profession has been slow to embrace these therapies, and good scientific data are still scarce. However, as we approach the “postantibiotic era” the situation is changing. A wealth of in vitro data now supports the long-held beliefs that TTO has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Despite some progress, there is still a lack of clinical evidence demonstrating efficacy against bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. Large randomized clinical trials are now required to cement a place for TTO as a topical medicinal agent.

Source: C. F. Carson, K. A. Hammer, and T. V. Riley. “Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: A Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews. (2006): 19(1): 50–62.

In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi 12


The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections.

Source: F. D. D'Auria, L. Laino, V. Strippoli, M. Tecca, G. Salvatore, L. Battinelli, and G. Mazzanti. “In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi.” Journal of Chemotherapy. (2001): 13(4):377-83.


  1. https://www.jmb.or.kr/submission/Journal/027/JMB027-03-02_FDOC_1.pdf
  2. http://www.thepharmajournal.com/archives/2012/vol1issue4/PartA/9.pdf
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995982/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28621716
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3763181/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1997117/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
  8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20129403/
  9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23853660/
  10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9055360/
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360273/
  12. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11589479/